SELECT THE CORRECT ALTERNATIVE:
- Which of the following is a greenhouse gas ?
- ______ is used to convert organic pollutants into water vapour and CO2.
- Electrostatic precipitator
- Flame combustion
- ______ are used in electrostatic precipitators.
- Biological oxygen demand of ______ is the least.
- sea water
- pure water
- polluted water
- Compounds of ______ cause Minamata disease.
- Due to eutrophication______.
- BOD increases
- BOD decreases
- algae are destroyed
- water becomes less harmful
- ______ is the first step of sewage treatment.
- World Environment Day is celebrated every year on ______.
- 5th March
- 15th April
- 15th May
- 5th June
- We and our surroundings together are called...
- Which of the following is not an environmental problem ?
- Wastage of water
- Conservation of water
- Land erosion
- Volcano is ______ source of pollution.
- Which rays strike on earth due to depletion of ozone layer ?
- Visible light
- Which method is used for the removal of sulphur dioxide and ammonia from the polluted air ?
- Wet scrubbers
- Gravitational method
- Electrostatic precipitator
- BOD is ______ in polluted water and ______ in potable water.
- more, less
- less, medium
- medium, more
- less, more
- Which of the following is responsible for acid rain ?
- Sulphur dioxide
- Which pollutants are responsible for bronchitis ?
- O2, CO2
- CO, CO2
- SO2, NO2
- Cl2, H2S
- Which method is used to control pollutants of particulate nature ?
- Electrostatic precipitators
- Oxidation pond
ANSWERS TO MCQs
(1) A (2) B (3) C (4) C (5) A (6) A (7) C (8) D (9) A (10) B (11) B (12) A (13) A (14) A (15) C (16) C (17) C (18)
ANSWER IN SHORT:
- What does 'environment' mean ?
ANS :The social, economical, physical and chemical factors surrounding an organism are collectively known as 'environment' for that organism.
- What is studied in environmental biology ?
ANS :The interrelationship between organisms as well as between living and nonliving components is studied in environmental biology.
- Mention types of environment.
ANS :Types of environment are : (i)Physical environment (ii)Biological environment (iii)Cultural environment.
- Mention the major reason for environmental problems.
ANS :Population explosion is the major reason for environmental problems.
- Define : Pollution.
ANS :Pollution is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air, water and soil.
- Mention common pollutants.
ANS :Various gases, heavy metals, pesticides, fertilisers, radioactive materials, high temperature, etc. are major pollutants.
- Mention types of pollution.
ANS :Air pollution, water pollution and land(soil) pollution.
- What is atmosphere?
ANS :The transparent layer of gases surrounding the earth's surface is called atmosphere.
- Mention common causes for air pollution.
ANS :Urbanisation, population explosion, industrialisation and heavy transportation are common causes for air pollution.
- Mention respiratory diseases caused due to air pollution.
ANS :Asthma, bronchitis, silicosis and asbestosis are diseases caused due to air pollution.
- Mention pollutants causing asthma and bronchitis.
ANS :SO2 and NO2 are pollutants causing asthma and bronchitis.
- What are carcinogens ?
ANS :Substances causing cancer are called carcinogens.
- What rae the effects of depletion of ozone layer ?
ANS :Depletion of ozone layer increases the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth which, in turn, causes skin cancer and damages eyes and immune system.
- What is Greenhouse Effect ?
ANS :The warming up of earth's atmosphere due to absorption of heat by gases like CO2 and methane present in the atmosphere is called Greenhouse Effect.
- Which type of pollutants cause air pollution ?
ANS :Gaseous and particulate pollutants cause air pollution.
- What is water pollution ?
ANS :The mixing of undesirable chemical, physical or biological components with pure water is called water pollution.
- What is the full form of BOD ?
ANS :The full form of BOD is Biological Oxygen Demand.
- What is Eutrophication ?
ANS :The pollution caused due to growth of algae and other microorganisms under the influence of nutrients is called Eutrophication.
- Which components promote algal growth in water ?
ANS :Compounds having nitrates and phosphates promote algal growth in water.
- What is the full form of NEERI ?
ANS :NEERI stands for National Environment Engineering Research Institute.
- Mention prime causes for land pollution.
ANS :Urbanisation, population explosion and industrialisation are prime causes for land pollution.
- Mention solid waste pollutants causing land pollution.
ANS :Faeces of humans and other animals, dead bodies and domestic waste are solid pollutants causing land pollution.
- How are pollutants classified ?
ANS :Pollutants are classified as biodegradable and non-biodegradable pollutants.
- What is meant by biodegradable pollutants ?
ANS :The pollutants which can be decomposed by microorganisms are called biodegradable pollutants.
- What is meant by non-biodegradable pollutants ?
ANS :The pollutants which cannot be decomposed by microorganisms are called non-biodegradable pollutants.
- Give examples of biodegradable pollutants.
ANS :Faecal matter, solid sewage waste, domestic waste, agricultural waste, paper, wood, clothes, etc. are biodegradable pollutants.
- Give examples of non-biodegradable pollutants.
ANS :Pesticides like DDT, mercury, lead, aluminium, arsenic, plastics, etc. are examples of non-biodegradable pollutants.
- What is Biomagnification ?
ANS :The accumulation of harmful non-biodegradable substances in the bodies of organisms through the foodchains and biogeochemical cycle is called Biomagnification.
- Demand of what increases due to population explosion ?
ANS :Demand of space and food increases due to population explosion.
- What is conservation of environment ?
ANS :Conservation of environment means such activities which provide individual or commercial benefits by preventing excessive use leading to environmental damage.
- Mention the effects due to depletion of ozone layer.
ANS :Increase in ultraviolet radiation reaching earth due to depletion of ozone layer causes skin cancer, damage to eyes and damage to immune system.
- What work has been done by NEERI for water pollution ?
ANS :NEERI has developed Oxygen Pond method for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage.