Monday, August 31, 2009

SCIENTISTS' HIDE & SEEK : A JOKE

IMPORTANT : This blog is based on old syllabus of GSEB. For latest syllabus introduced in 2012, I have started another blog. To go there CLICK HERE

Once all the scientists die and go to heaven. They decide to play hide-n-seek.

Unfortunately Einstein is the one who has the den...He is supposed to count upto 100...and then start searching...

Everyone starts hiding except Newton...

Newton just draws a square of side 1 meter and stands in it right in front of Einstein.

Einstein's counting 1,2,3...,97,98,99,100...He opens his eyes and finds Newton standing in front...

Einstein says " Newton's out...Newton's out..."

Newton denies and says "I am not out...I am not Newton..."

All the scientists come out to see how he proves that he is not Newton.

Newton says "I am standing in a square of area 1 meter squared...That makes me Newton per meter squared...Since one Newton per meter squared is one Pascal, I'm Pascal, Therefore Pascal is OUT...!!!!!!!!!

Wednesday, August 27, 2008

ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS - III : LONG ANSWERS

GIVE ANSWER IN DETAIL



*INDEX-TOPIC SEARCH


  1. Describe sources of air pollution in brief.
    ANS :

    • The two types of sources of air pollution are : Natural sources and man-made sources.
    • Natural sources(factors) polluting the atmosphere are : volcanoes, forest fires, decaying plants, storms, pollen grains, lightening-induced chemicals, etc.
    • Man-made sources of pollution are : Burning of firewood, burning of fossil fuels, automobile smoke, aeroplanes, power stations, industrialisation, agriculture, wars, atomic explosions, deforestation, mining, oil refineries, etc.


  2. Mention harmful effects of water pollution.
    ANS :

    • Mercury mixed with water causes the disease Minamata. It is a poisonous disease and may cause death. It was first observed in coastal area of Minamata city of Japan.
    • Chemicals like mercury, cadmium, cobalt, etc. present in water cause diarrhoea.
    • Biological Oxygen Demand(BOD) of clean water is less. BOD of polluted water increases and harms aquatic organisms, sometimes causing their destruction.
    • Accumulation of domestic sewage and fertilisers results in the increase of nitrates and phosphates in water. These promote the growth of algae and other microorganisms. Thus, there is excessive loading of aquatic ecosystem with nutrients and algal growth, a phenomenon called eutrophication. Due to eutrophication BOD increases and organisms die.


  3. Describe the interrelationship between population, environment and development.
    ANS :

    • Exploding population at increasing speed has become a major problem to environment and development at global level.
    • Increase in population leads to increase in demand for food. This leads to increase in the use of fertilisers and pesticides.
    • Excessive use of fertilisers and pesticides causes pollution which has direct and indirect effect on human health.
    • Increasing demand for space due to population explosion results in encroachment of fertile and agricultural land, forests and habitat of wild life.
    • To maintain the existence of human life, the balance between population, environment and development must be maintained.


  4. List out different laws for environmental protection.
    ANS :For the protection and conservation of environment, following laws have been enacted by the Government of India :

    • Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
    • Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
    • Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
    • Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
    • The Motor Vehicle Act, 1983
    • Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1966
    • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
    • The Insecticide Act, 1968


  5. Describe harmful effects of air pollution.
    ANS :

    • Burning sensation in eyes, nose and throat.
    • Diseases of lungs like bronchitis, asthma, etc. caused by pollutant gases like SO2 and NO2.
    • Diseases of respiratory system spread through dust particles. Silicosis is caused by silica and asbestosis is caused by asbestos.
    • Cancer caused by carcinogenic pollutants.
    • Heavy metals inhaled through air cause poisonous effects.
    • Increase in ultraviolet radiation reaching earth due to depletion of ozone layer causes skin cancer, damage to eyes and damage to immune system.
    • Dissolution of atmospheric gases like SO2, SO3, NO2 in moisture results in formation of sulphuric acid and nitric acid. This causes acid rain which harms organisms, various monuments and buildings.
    • Carbon dioxide and methane absorb heat and increase the temperature of earth's atmosphere. This is known as Greenhouse effect. This increase in temperature results in melting of ice on polar regions and causes sea level to rise.


  6. Write a descriptive note on Prevention and Control of Air Pollution.
    ANS :Two types of methods are used for prevention and control of air pollution :

    1. Methods for controlling gaseous pollutants :

      1. Combustion : This method is used for pollutants in the form of organic gases or vapours. These pollutants are converted into water vapour and relatively less harmful products such as CO2 by flame combustion or catalytic process.
      2. Absorption : In this technique, the gaseous effluents are passed through specific scrubbers or absorbers. The gaseous pollutants are absorbed and air is purified.

    2. Methods for controlling particulate emissions :

      1. Wet Scrubbers : Wet scrubbers are used in chemical, mining and metallurgical industries to trap SO2, NH3, metal fumes, etc.
      2. Electrostatic Precipitators : The gas or air stream containing aerosols in the form of dust, fumes or moisture is passed between two electrodes. The aerosol particles get precipitated on the electrodes.





    NOTE : The diagram in the textbook showing WET SCRUBBER is actually the diagram of BAG FILTER.
  7. Describe prevention and control of water pollution.
    ANS :Sewage treatment and Oxidation pond are the two methods of controlling water pollution.

    1. SEWAGE TREATMENT :

      • This method involves three steps.
      • During first step, large components and suspended matter are isolated by sedimentation and converted into harmless matter which can be used as fertiliser.
      • During second stage, air containing oxygen and bacteria is passed through water in an aeration tank. The bacteria degrade organic substances. Then chlorination is performed.
      • During tertiary(third) stage, substances like nitrates and phosphates are removed to obtain clean water.

    2. OXIDATION POND :

      • This method, developed by National Environment Engineering Research Institute(NEERI), Nagpur, is used to treat industrial effluents and sewage.
      • Oxidation pond is a shallow pond where domestic as well as industrial waste matter is stored.
      • This water is mixed with microorganisms and algae which oxidise carbonic components present in water and water gets purified.




  8. ANS :

Sunday, August 24, 2008

ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS - II : BRIEF ANSWERS

ANSWER IN BRIEF



*INDEX-TOPIC SEARCH


  1. Mention types of environment with examples.
    ANS:

    • Physical environment : atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere.
    • Biological environment : plants, animals, microorganisms.
    • Cultural environment : social traditions, economic, political.


  2. Draw a chart showing types of environment.
    ANS:[SEE THE CHART]


  3. Mention various environmental problems.
    ANS:Various environmental problems include :

    1. Decrease in habitat of wildlife
    2. Wastage of water
    3. Deforestation
    4. Soil erosion
    5. Desertification
    6. Depletion in biodiversity


  4. Write a few sentences on air pollution.
    ANS:

    • The transparent layer of gases surrounding the earth is called atmosphere.
    • In balanced atmosphere the ratio of various gases is fixed.
    • When this balance is disturbed due to any reason, it is called air pollution.
    • The major reasons for air pollution are population explosion, urbanisation, industrialisation and heavy transportation.


  5. Mention natural sources of air pollution.
    ANS:Natural sources of air pollution are : volcanoes, forest fire, storms, pollen grains, dust particles, decaying plants, lightening-induced chemical reactions, etc.

  6. Mention man-made sources of air pollution.
    ANS:Man-made sources of air pollution are : Burning of firewood, burning of fossil fuels, industrialisation, agriculture, smoke from automobiles, aeroplanes, wars, atomic tests, deforestation, power stations, mining, oil refineries, etc.

  7. Explain : Acid rain.
    ANS:

    • Combustion of fuels and industrial smoke add pollutant gases like NO2, SO2, etc. in the atmosphere.
    • These gases dissolve in moisture present in air and form acids like nitric acid and sulphuric acid.
    • When these acids come back to earth through rain, it is called Acid Rain.
    • Acid rain harms various organisms, monuments and buildings.


  8. Explain : Greenhouse effect.
    ANS:

    • Gases like CO2 and methane have the property of absorbing heat.
    • These gases, when present in atmosphere, absorb the heat of the sun rays reflected by the earth.
    • This results in the warming of earth's atmosphere.
    • This is called Green-House Effect.
    • Due to Greenhouse effect, the ice on polar regions may melt increasing the sea level.


  9. Describe the methods for controlling gaseous pollutants.
    ANS:[Refer to Long Answer about prevention and control of air pollution]

  10. Describe the methods for controlling particulate emissions.
    ANS:[Refer to Long Answer about prevention and control of air pollution]


  11. Mention sources of water pollution.
    ANS:The sources of water pollution are :

    1. Industries
    2. Population explosion
    3. Sewage
    4. Pesticides and fertilisers
    5. Radioactive waste
    6. Oil(spillage of oil)
    7. Heavy metals
    8. Harmful microorganisms.


  12. Describe sewage treatment.
    ANS:[Refer to Long Answer about prevention and control of water pollution]

  13. Describe Oxidation Pond method.
    ANS:[Refer to Long Answer about prevention and control of water pollution]

  14. List out pollutants causing land pollution.
    ANS:Pollutants causing land pollution are : fertilisers, ashes, coal, domestic waste, paper, card board, plastics, rubber, clothes, metals, glass, construction materials, dead bodies of animals, insecticides, radioactive waste, etc.

  15. Mention effects of land pollution.
    ANS:

    • Agricultural land becomes less fertile.
    • Insoluble pesticides like DDT decrease the secretion of sex hormones as well as the calcium level.
    • Soil erosion occurs. The amount of soil washed out in 6 months can be sufficient to make bricks needed to construct houses of entire world.


  16. Describe the main points for prevention and control of land pollution.
    ANS:

    • The pollutants can be decomposed and removed through biological processes.
    • They can be converted into organic fertilisers.
    • Non-decomposable waste can be used to fill up the pits.
    • Specific incinerators can be used for final disposal of waste.


  17. Write about biodegradable pollutants.
    ANS:

    • The pollutants which can be decomposed by microorganisms are known as biodegradable pollutants.
    • Faecal matter, solid sewage waste, domestic waste, agricultural waste, paper, wood, clothes, etc. are biodegradable.


  18. Write about non-biodegradable pollutants.
    ANS:

    • The pollutants which cannot be decomposed by microorganisms are known as non-biodegradable pollutants.
    • Pesticides like DDT, mercury, lead, aluminium, arsenic, plastics, etc. are non-biodegradable.
    • These pollutants remain for a long time in environment and enter the organisms through food chain and biogeochemical cycle.
    • Then they get accumulated in large amount in their bodies, a phenomenon called biomagnification.


  19. Write a few points about environmental balance.
    ANS:

    • Environmental balance is essential for all organisms including man.
    • Pollution leads to the loss of environmental balance.
    • Environmental imbalance causes harmful effects on life of organisms.
    • Judicious use of non-renewable sources is necessary for the maintenance of environmental balance.
    • Personal as well as social awareness regarding environment like keeping one's surroundings clean automatically helps in the maintenance of balanced environment.


  20. Write some points about conservation and protection of environment.
    ANS:

    • Conservation of environment means prevention of excessive use of such activities which provide individual and commercial benefits and lead to environmental damage.
    • Almost all countries in the world have made laws for the conservation of environment. These laws help protect and Conserve environment.
    • One should be aware of such laws to make it possible to protect and conserve environment.


  21. Describe environmental problems.
    ANS:

    • Activities of man continuously disturb the environment and create various problems.
    • Population explosion, industrialization and other human activities create following problems :

      1. Decrease in habitat of wildlife
      2. Wastage of water
      3. Deforestation
      4. Soil erosion
      5. Desertification
      6. Depletion in biodiversity



  22. Why do aquatic animals die in polluted water ?

    ANS: Due to pollution of water by domestic sewage and fertilizers there is an increase in nitrate and phosphate components. these components cause many fold growth of algae and other micro-organisms. This is called eutrophication and due to it the biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the aquatic ecosystem increases and the organisms die.

Friday, August 22, 2008

ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS - I : MCQs & SHORT ANSWERS


*INDEX-TOPIC SEARCH

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS



SELECT THE CORRECT ALTERNATIVE:


  1. Which of the following is a greenhouse gas ?

    1. Methane
    2. Oxygen
    3. Nitrogen
    4. Hydrogen

  2. ______ is used to convert organic pollutants into water vapour and CO2.

    1. Electrostatic precipitator
    2. Flame combustion
    3. Absorption
    4. Wet-scrubber

  3. ______ are used in electrostatic precipitators.

    1. Catalysts
    2. Absorbers
    3. Electrodes
    4. Chemicals

  4. Biological oxygen demand of ______ is the least.

    1. sewage
    2. sea water
    3. pure water
    4. polluted water

  5. Compounds of ______ cause Minamata disease.

    1. mercury
    2. cadmium
    3. cobalt
    4. fertilisers

  6. Due to eutrophication______.

    1. BOD increases
    2. BOD decreases
    3. algae are destroyed
    4. water becomes less harmful

  7. ______ is the first step of sewage treatment.

    1. Precipitation
    2. Chlorination
    3. Sedimentation
    4. Aeration

  8. World Environment Day is celebrated every year on ______.

    1. 5th March
    2. 15th April
    3. 15th May
    4. 5th June

  9. We and our surroundings together are called...

    1. environment
    2. atmosphere
    3. lithosphere
    4. hydrosphere

  10. Which of the following is not an environmental problem ?

    1. Wastage of water
    2. Conservation of water
    3. Deforestation
    4. Land erosion

  11. Volcano is ______ source of pollution.

    1. artificial
    2. natural
    3. both
    4. man-made

  12. Which rays strike on earth due to depletion of ozone layer ?

    1. Ultraviolet
    2. Infrared
    3. Visible light
    4. Microwaves

  13. Which method is used for the removal of sulphur dioxide and ammonia from the polluted air ?

    1. Wet scrubbers
    2. Absorption
    3. Gravitational method
    4. Electrostatic precipitator

  14. BOD is ______ in polluted water and ______ in potable water.

    1. more, less
    2. less, medium
    3. medium, more
    4. less, more

  15. Which of the following is responsible for acid rain ?

    1. Hydrogen
    2. Oxygen
    3. Sulphur dioxide
    4. Methane

  16. Which pollutants are responsible for bronchitis ?

    1. O2, CO2
    2. CO, CO2
    3. SO2, NO2
    4. Cl2, H2S

  17. Which method is used to control pollutants of particulate nature ?

    1. Combustion
    2. Absorption
    3. Electrostatic precipitators
    4. Oxidation pond


ANSWERS TO MCQs



(1) A (2) B (3) C (4) C (5) A (6) A (7) C (8) D (9) A (10) B (11) B (12) A (13) A (14) A (15) C (16) C (17) C (18)

SHORT QUESTIONS



ANSWER IN SHORT:

  1. What does 'environment' mean ?

         ANS :The social, economical, physical and chemical factors surrounding an organism are collectively known as 'environment' for that organism.
  2. What is studied in environmental biology ?

         ANS :The interrelationship between organisms as well as between living and nonliving components is studied in environmental biology.
  3. Mention types of environment.

         ANS :Types of environment are : (i)Physical environment (ii)Biological environment (iii)Cultural environment.
  4. Mention the major reason for environmental problems.

         ANS :Population explosion is the major reason for environmental problems.
  5. Define : Pollution.

         ANS :Pollution is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air, water and soil.
  6. Mention common pollutants.

         ANS :Various gases, heavy metals, pesticides, fertilisers, radioactive materials, high temperature, etc. are major pollutants.
  7. Mention types of pollution.

         ANS :Air pollution, water pollution and land(soil) pollution.
  8. What is atmosphere?

         ANS :The transparent layer of gases surrounding the earth's surface is called atmosphere.
  9. Mention common causes for air pollution.

         ANS :Urbanisation, population explosion, industrialisation and heavy transportation are common causes for air pollution.
  10. Mention respiratory diseases caused due to air pollution.

         ANS :Asthma, bronchitis, silicosis and asbestosis are diseases caused due to air pollution.
  11. Mention pollutants causing asthma and bronchitis.

         ANS :SO2 and NO2 are pollutants causing asthma and bronchitis.
  12. What are carcinogens ?

         ANS :Substances causing cancer are called carcinogens.
  13. What rae the effects of depletion of ozone layer ?

         ANS :Depletion of ozone layer increases the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth which, in turn, causes skin cancer and damages eyes and immune system.
  14. What is Greenhouse Effect ?

         ANS :The warming up of earth's atmosphere due to absorption of heat by gases like CO2 and methane present in the atmosphere is called Greenhouse Effect.
  15. Which type of pollutants cause air pollution ?

         ANS :Gaseous and particulate pollutants cause air pollution.
  16. What is water pollution ?

         ANS :The mixing of undesirable chemical, physical or biological components with pure water is called water pollution.
  17. What is the full form of BOD ?

         ANS :The full form of BOD is Biological Oxygen Demand.
  18. What is Eutrophication ?

         ANS :The pollution caused due to growth of algae and other microorganisms under the influence of nutrients is called Eutrophication.
  19. Which components promote algal growth in water ?

         ANS :Compounds having nitrates and phosphates promote algal growth in water.
  20. What is the full form of NEERI ?

         ANS :NEERI stands for National Environment Engineering Research Institute.
  21. Mention prime causes for land pollution.

         ANS :Urbanisation, population explosion and industrialisation are prime causes for land pollution.
  22. Mention solid waste pollutants causing land pollution.

         ANS :Faeces of humans and other animals, dead bodies and domestic waste are solid pollutants causing land pollution.
  23. How are pollutants classified ?

         ANS :Pollutants are classified as biodegradable and non-biodegradable pollutants.
  24. What is meant by biodegradable pollutants ?

         ANS :The pollutants which can be decomposed by microorganisms are called biodegradable pollutants.
  25. What is meant by non-biodegradable pollutants ?

         ANS :The pollutants which cannot be decomposed by microorganisms are called non-biodegradable pollutants.
  26. Give examples of biodegradable pollutants.

         ANS :Faecal matter, solid sewage waste, domestic waste, agricultural waste, paper, wood, clothes, etc. are biodegradable pollutants.
  27. Give examples of non-biodegradable pollutants.

         ANS :Pesticides like DDT, mercury, lead, aluminium, arsenic, plastics, etc. are examples of non-biodegradable pollutants.
  28. What is Biomagnification ?

         ANS :The accumulation of harmful non-biodegradable substances in the bodies of organisms through the foodchains and biogeochemical cycle is called Biomagnification.
  29. Demand of what increases due to population explosion ?

         ANS :Demand of space and food increases due to population explosion.
  30. What is conservation of environment ?

         ANS :Conservation of environment means such activities which provide individual or commercial benefits by preventing excessive use leading to environmental damage.
  31. Mention the effects due to depletion of ozone layer.

         ANS :Increase in ultraviolet radiation reaching earth due to depletion of ozone layer causes skin cancer, damage to eyes and damage to immune system.
  32. What work has been done by NEERI for water pollution ?

         ANS :NEERI has developed Oxygen Pond method for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage.


  33.      ANS :

Tuesday, August 19, 2008

HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION - III : LONG ANSWERS

GIVE ANSWER IN DETAIL



*INDEX-TOPIC SEARCH


  1. Explain : Heredity and variation.
    ANS :
    HEREDITY :

    • Transmission of characters from parents to offsprings is known as heredity.
    • Fertilised egg or zygote carries hereditary information.
    • The zygote develops into a particular type of offspring only.
    • Thus, eggs laid by a sparrow hatch into sparrows and a dog reproduces to give birth to pups only.

    VARIATION :

    • Variation means some individual diversity in the organism of one generation from that of the parental generation.
    • Variation passes from generation to generation.
    • In sexual reproduction, both similarities and variation are clearly observed among the offsprings of same parents.
    • Due to variation, any two persons rarely show complete similarity.


  2. Explain : Mendel's concept of heredity.
    ANS :

    • Mendel proposed that for regulation of every character in an organism there is a pair of factors.
    • During Mendel's time, nothing was known about chromosomes and DNA.
    • T.Boveri and W.S.Sutton proved that a gene is a part of chromosome.
    • Thus, Mendel indicated the path of transmission of factors from parental generation to offsprings through gamates.
    • Both Mendelian factors(genes) as well as chromosomes are present in pairs. They get separated from each other during meiosis when a haploid(n) gamate is formed.
    • During fertilisation, gamates fuse to form a zygote(2n) carrying characters which later on get transmitted to the offspring.


  3. Write a note on sex determination and chromosomes OR Explain the role of chromosomes in sex determination.
    ANS :

    • The phenomenon determining whether the developing embryo will be a male or a female is known as sex determination.
    • During the investigation on grasshoppers, one additional unpaired chromosome was observed in the male. This additional chromosome is called X-body and is known as sex chromosome since it is associated with sex determination.
    • The second sex chromosome is called X-chromosome if it is similar to the previous one and is called Y-chromosome if it differs from the X-chromosome.
    • In humans, the female has 2A + XX chromosomes and all the ova are A + X type.
    • The human male has 2A + XY chromosomes. This leads to 50% sperms of A + X type and 50% of A + Y type.
    • The fertilisation of an ovum by a sperm of A + X type produces a female whereas the fertilisation of an ovum by a sperm of A + Y type produces a male.
    • In some species, like turtle Chrysema Picta and lizard Agama agama, the sex determination is regulated by environmental factors.



  4. What is biological evolution ? Mention the evidences supporting evolution and different theories of evolution.
    ANS :

    • The sequential and well-organised process of gradual structural changes in species is called biological(organic) evolution.
    • Evidences of comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, vestigial organs, fossils, connecting links, physiology and taxonomy support biological evolution.
    • The various theories of evolution are :

      1. Lamarck's theory of inheritance of acquired characters.
      2. August Weismann's Germplasm theory.
      3. Darwin's theory of Natural Selection.
      4. Hugo De Vries' Mutation theory.



  5. Explain : Chromosome is the physical basis of heredity.
    ANS :

    • The discovery of the process of sexual reproduction involving gamates established the concept of transmission of genetic material.
    • Mendel proposed that there is a pair of factors for regulation of every character though during his time little was known about chromosomes and DNA.
    • T.Boveri and W.S.Sutton experimentally proved that gene is a part of chromosomes.
    • Mendelian factors(genes) as well as chromosomes are found in pairs but they get separated during meiosis forming haploid(n) gamates.
    • During fertilisation, gamates fuse to form zygote(2n) in which the characters are stored and transmitted to the offspring.
    • It was proved that the genes are located on chromosomes and the number of chromosomes is fewer than that of genes because the number of characters in an organism is very large. Thus, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes in human being but the total number of genes present on them is about 30,000 to 40,000.
    • It has been established that gene is a segment of a large molecule called DNA(DeoxyriboNucleic Acid).
    • DNA is the important component for the expression of genetic information from one generation to the other. Every chromosome possesses one molecule of DNA.
    • In some viruses, RNA(RiboNucleic Acid) is the genetic material. Such viruses are called retrovirus. The virus causing AIDS in human beings is a retrovirus.
    • Thus, chromosome is the physical basis of heredity.


  6. Describe the structure of chromosome.
    ANS :

    • Chromosomes are carriers of genes.
    • Chromosomes can be identified by staining.
    • In prokaryotes only one chromosome occurs whereas in eukaryotes many chromosomes occur in pair.
    • The paired structure of chromosomes is known as diploid(2n) and is seen in somatic cells. They are called homologous chromosomes as both the chromosomes of a pair are exactly similar.
    • The number of diploid chromosomes is fixed for a species.
    • In reproductive cells the chromosomes are haploid(n), i.e. they are half in number.
    • During cell division(metaphase), different chromosomes get separated from each other and their morphological study becomes possible.
    • A group of minimum two chromatids forms one chromosome.
    • The diameter of each chromatid is 60 A°.
    • Chromatids are joined with each other by a dark region called centromere or primary constriction. Some chromosomes have additional secondary constriction.
    • Variation can be seen in position and number of centromere.
    • The length of chromosomes is 0.2 - 5.0μ (micron) andtheir diameter ranges from 0.2 - 2.0μ.




  7. Write a note on types of chromosomes.
    ANS :

    • Chromosomes are classified depending on the position of the centromere.
    • There are four types : (i)Metacntric (ii)Sub-metacentric (iii)Acrocentric (iv)Telocentric.
    • Metacentric :

      • The centromere is present exactly in the centre.
      • All four arms of chromatids are equal in length.

    • Sub-metacentric :

      • The centromere is situated slightly away from the centre.
      • The two arms of chromatids on one side are long and the other two arms are short.

    • Acrocentric :

      • The centromere is located far from the centre near one end.
      • The two arms of chromatids on one side are very long and the other two arms are very short.
      • In some chromosomes, a small filamentous structure possessing a round tip is present on the distal end of short arms. This part is known as satellite.
      • A short filament called nucleolar organiser region connects satellite with the short arm.

    • Telocentric :

      • The centromere is situated at the tip of the chromosome.
      • The two arms are located only on one side.





  8. Describe Watson-Crick model for structure of DNA.
    ANS ::

    • In 1953, Watson and Crick proposed a model showing molecular structure of DNA.
    • In the molecule of DNA two polynucleotide chains run in antiparallel directions and twist around each other to form a spiral helical structure.
    • One nucleotide is linked with another nucleotide by a phospho-diaster bond.
    • In the chain, sugar and phosphate are linked with their nitrogenous bases.
    • Purine type nitrogenous base of one nucleotide links with pyrimidine type of nitrogenous base by weak hydrogen bonds.
    • Adenine(A) links with Thymine(T) by two weak hydrogen bonds whereas Guanine(G) links with Cytosine(C) by three weak hydrogen bonds. Such pairing is known as complimentary pairing.
    • The purine to pyrimidine ratio in each DNA molecule is always 1 : 1.
    • The length of one helix is 34 A° and each helix possesses 10 nitrogenous base pairs.
    • The distance between two adjacent nucleotides is 3.4 A° and the distance between two opposite chains is 20 A°.




  9. Explain different evidences supporting biological evolution.
    ANS ::

    • Comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, vestigial organs and fossils are major evidences supporting biological evolution.
    • COMPARATIVE ANATOMY :

      • A number of common features of different kinds of organisms favour evolution.
      • Homologous organs like forelimb of humans, fins of fishes, wings of birds, limb of frog and forelimb of lizard perform different functions but show structural similarities.
      • All these organs might have evolved from a common ancestor from which these organisms have evolved.
      • Analogous organs like wings of birds and wings of insects perform same function of flying but their origins differ. Wings of birds are modifications of forelimb but wings of insects are ectodermal derivatives(i.e they have originated from skin).

    • COMPARATIVE EMBRYOLOGY :

      • Embryology provides strong evidence of evolution for the origin of different organisms.
      • During the early stage of development, the embryos of different vertebrates show similarities.
      • Later, their development results in clearly visible differences.
      • This is an evidence of the fact that the vertebrates have a common ancestor and origin.
      • Based on this fact Ernst Hackel proposed the 'Recapitulation Theory' which states that "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny".

    • VESTIGIAL ORGANS :

      • Morphological studies have identified some organs which have lost their functions. These organs might have been functional in their ancestors. Such organs are called vestigial organs.
      • Vermiform appendix associated with large intestine is a vestigial organ in humans but it is functional in herbivores like rabbit.
      • Nictitating membrane of eye is a vestigial organ in humans but it is functional in birds and gives protection to the eyes.
      • Thus, vestigial organs support evolution.

    • FOSSILS :

      • Fossils provide some evidence to support evolution.
      • Fossils of Archaopteryx(now extinct) show that it looked like a bird but it had maximum reptilian characters. This indicates that birds have evolved from reptiles.





  10. ANS :

Sunday, August 17, 2008

HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION - II : BRIEF ANSWERS

ANSWER IN BRIEF



*INDEX-TOPIC SEARCH


  1. Explain : Heredity.
    ANS:

    • Transmission of characters from parents to offsprings is known as heredity.
    • Fertilised egg or zygote carries hereditary information.
    • The zygote develops into a particular type of offspring only.
    • Thus, eggs laid by a sparrow hatch into sparrows and a dog reproduces to give birth to pups only.


  2. Explain : Variation.
    ANS:

    • Variation means some individual diversity in the organism of one generation from that of the parental generation.
    • Variation passes from generation to generation.
    • In sexual reproduction, both similarities and variation are clearly observed among the offsprings of same parents.
    • Due to variation, any two persons rarely show complete similarity.


  3. Explain : The number of chromosomes is fewer than the number of genes.
    ANS:

    • Genes are located on chromosomes.
    • Genes are responsible for specific characters of an organism.
    • The number of chromosomes in an organism is small but the number of characters of an individual organism is very large.
    • For example, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes in a human cell but the number of characters is very large requiring a large number of genes(30,000 to 40,000).
    • Thus, the number of chromosomes is fewer than that of genes.


  4. Explain : Mutation.
    ANS:

    • Gene is a segment of DNA and is a unit of inheritance.
    • The nature of a gene is maintained generation after generation but sometimes it undergoes sudden inheritable changes known as mutation.
    • Mutation is one of the reasons of variation among individuals and species.


  5. Describe the role of environmental factors in sex determination.
    ANS:

    • In some species, the sex determination is regulated by environmental factors.
    • For example, in turtle Chrysema Picta, high incubation temperature results into development of a female.
    • In a lizard, Agama agama, high incubation temperature results into development of a male.


  6. Mention various theories of evolution.
    ANS:

    • Lamarck's theory of Inheritance of acquired characters.
    • August Weismann's Germplasm theory.
    • Darwin's theory of Natural Selection.
    • Hugo De Vries' Mutation theory.


  7. Write a few points on Darwin's theory of Natural Selection.
    ANS:

    • Darwin's theory of Natural Selection describes biological evolution.
    • It explains how evolution takes place with the help of variation.
    • It fails to explain how variation occurs.


  8. Explain : Homologous organs with example.
    ANS:

    • The organs showing similarities in origin but performing different functions are called homologous organs.
    • Forelimbs of human beings, fins of fishes, wings of birds, limbs of frog and forelimbs of lizard have structural similarities due to same origin but they perform different functions.


  9. Explain : Analogous organs with example.
    ANS:

    • The organs showing different origin but performing the same functions are called analogous organs.
    • For example, both birds and insects use wings to fly(same function) but their origins are different. The wings of birds are modifications of forelimbs whereas the wings of insects are ectodermal derivatives(i.e. they have originated from skin).


  10. Write a note on components of nucleotides.
    ANS:

    • DNA is a macromolecule made up of a large number of nucleotides.
    • A nucleotide is made up of three components :

      1. Pentose sugar(deoxyribose sugar)
      2. Phosphate group(H3PO4)
      3. Nitrogenous base
    • The nitrogenous bases are of two types :
      1. Purines
      2. Pyrimidines
    • Adenine(A) and Guanine(G) are purines whereas Cytosine(C) and Thymine(T) are pyrimidines.



  11. ANS:

Friday, August 15, 2008

HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION - I : MCQs & SHORT ANSWERS


*INDEX-TOPIC SEARCH

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS



SELECT THE CORRECT ALTERNATIVE:




  1. Variation is observed in...

    1. asexual reproduction
    2. sexual reproduction
    3. both asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction
    4. neither of them

  2. The number of genes is______ the number of chromosomes.

    1. same as
    2. less than
    3. more than
    4. less than or equal to

  3. In human being ______ pairs of chromosomes are present.

    1. 23
    2. 46
    3. 30,000
    4. 40,000

  4. The number of genes in human being is about...

    1. 23
    2. 46
    3. 1,000-2,000
    4. 30,000 to 40,000

  5. Every chromosome possesses ______ molecule/s of DNA.

    1. 23
    2. 4
    3. 2
    4. 1

  6. Which of the following is true ?

    1. Chromopsomes are located on genes.
    2. Chromosomes are part of a chromatid.
    3. Chromotids are part of a chromosome.
    4. Prokaryotes have paired chromosomes.

  7. What is the diameter of a chromatid ?

    1. 40 A°
    2. 50 A°
    3. 60 A°
    4. 70 A°

  8. The chromatids are joined to each other by...

    1. chromosome
    2. centromere
    3. gene
    4. DNA

  9. The length of a chromosome is...

    1. 0.2-0.5μ
    2. 60 A°
    3. 60μ
    4. 34 A°

  10. The diameter of a chromosome is...

    1. 0.2-0.5μ
    2. 0.2-2.0μ
    3. 60 A°
    4. 34 A°

  11. A satellite structure is found in ______ chromosomes.

    1. metacentric
    2. sub-metacentric
    3. acrocentric
    4. telocentric

  12. The centromere is situated at the tip of ______ chromosome.

    1. metacentric
    2. sub-metacentric
    3. acrocentric
    4. telocentric

  13. Which of the following is not a nitrogenous base ?

    1. Adenine
    2. Guanine
    3. Cytosine
    4. Deoxyribose sugar

  14. The molecule of DNA has ______ structure.

    1. linear
    2. cyclic
    3. helical
    4. hexagonal

  15. Adenine links with thymine by ______ weak hydrogen bonds in DNA.

    1. one
    2. two
    3. three
    4. four

  16. Guanine links with cytosine by ______ weak hydrogen bonds in DNA.

    1. one
    2. two
    3. three
    4. four

  17. In a DNA molecule adenine links with ______.

    1. adenine
    2. guanine
    3. cytosine
    4. thymine

  18. Each DNA molecule contains purine and pyrimidine in the ratio ______.

    1. 1 : 1
    2. 1 : 2
    3. 2 : 1
    4. 2 : 3

  19. The cells in human female have chromosomes of the type ______.

    1. A + X
    2. A + Y
    3. 2A + XX
    4. 2A + XY

  20. The cells in human male have chromosomes of the type ______.

    1. A + X
    2. A + Y
    3. 2A + XX
    4. 2A + XY

  21. The ovum produced by a human female is ______ type.

    1. A + X
    2. A + Y
    3. 2A + XX
    4. 2A + XY

  22. If the sperm having ______ chromosome fertilises an ovum then ______ is produced.

    1. X, male
    2. Y, female
    3. X, female
    4. XY, female

  23. The principle of inheritance of acquired characters was given by...

    1. Lamarck
    2. Weismann
    3. Darwin
    4. Hugo De Vries

  24. ______ gave Germplasm Theory.

    1. Lamarck
    2. Weismann
    3. Darwin
    4. Hugo De Vries

  25. Mutation theory was described by ______.

    1. Lamarck
    2. Hugo De Vries
    3. Darwin
    4. Weismann

  26. Fossils of ______ provide evidence of evolutionas the connecting link between birds and reptiles.

    1. Dinosaurs
    2. Lizard
    3. Archeopteryx
    4. Ostrich

  27. ______ gives detailed information of variation and evolution.

    1. Lamarckism
    2. Modern synthetic theory
    3. Recapitulation theory
    4. Darwinism

  28. The process of inheritance of characters in living beings is called...

    1. heredity
    2. evolution
    3. variation
    4. migration

  29. Individual variation means...

    1. heredity
    2. variation
    3. evolution
    4. similarities

  30. The branch of biology related with heredity and variation is called...

    1. Genetics
    2. Evolution
    3. Taxonomy
    4. Livinglogy

  31. Boveri and Sutton proved that...

    1. Factor is responsible for information of heredity.
    2. Variation is inherited generation to generation.
    3. Chromosomes are transported by gametes.
    4. Gene is a part of a chromosome.

  32. The number of chromosomes in comparison to the number of genes is...

    1. less
    2. more
    3. equal
    4. more or equal

  33. The unit of expression of genetic information from one generation to another generation is...

    1. DNA
    2. RNA
    3. both DNA & RNA
    4. blood

  34. An example of retrovirus is...

    1. the virus responsible for AIDS
    2. TMV
    3. bacteriophage
    4. RIV

  35. Generally, the gametes, according to the number of chromosomes, are...

    1. haploid
    2. diploid
    3. triploid
    4. none of three

  36. In which type of chromosome is the centromere displaced slightly from the center ?

    1. Metacentric
    2. Sub-metacentric
    3. Acrocentric
    4. Telocentric

  37. Which type of nitrogen base are Adenine and Thymine ?

    1. purine and pyrimidine
    2. pyrimidine and purine
    3. purine and purine
    4. pyrimidine and pyrimidine

  38. The extra chromosome found in male insect is called...

    1. X-body
    2. Y-body
    3. homologous
    4. neutral

  39. In which animal, the embryo develops into a male at high temperature ?

    1. turtle
    2. lizard
    3. grasshopper
    4. fish

  40. Which principle was given by Darwin ?

    1. Inheritance of acquired characters
    2. Germplasm theory
    3. Mutation theory
    4. Theory of natural selection












SHORT QUESTIONS



ANSWER IN SHORT:



  1. Define : Heredity.

         ANS :Heredity is defined as 'the transmission of characters from parents to the off-springs'.
  2. Give the meaning of variation from biological point of view.

         ANS :From biological point of view, variation means some individual difference(diversity) in the organismof one generation from that of the parental generation.
  3. What is Genetics ?

         ANS :Genetics is the branch of biology which studies important aspects of heredity and variation.
  4. What did Mendel propose ?

         ANS :Mendel proposed that for regulation of every character(in an organism) there is a pair of factors.
  5. What happens when a cross is made between two pea plants ?

         ANS :When a cross is made between two pea plnats showing different characters, only one character is seen in the offsprings but the successive generations show both characters.
  6. Who showed that gene is a part of chromosome ?

         ANS :T.Boveri and W.S. Sutton showed that gene is a part of chromosome.
  7. Where are genes located ?

         ANS :Genes are located on chromosomes.
  8. Of what is a gene the segment ?

         ANS :A gene is a segment of DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid).
  9. Who established the DNA as a component for expression of genetic information from one generation to the other ?

         ANS :Griffin, Avery, McLeod and McCarty established the DNA as a component for expression of genetic information from one generation to the other.
  10. What is meant by homologous chromosomes ?

         ANS :Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes occurring in pair and the members of a pair of chromosomes are exactly identical.
  11. What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes ?

         ANS : In prokaryotes only one chromosome occurs whereas in eukaryotes many chromosomes occur in pairs.
  12. What is the difference in number of chromosomes of somatic cells and reproductive cells ?

         ANS :The number of chromosomes in reproductive cells is half(haploid) of that in somatic cells(diploid).
  13. When do chromosomes get separated from each other ?

         ANS :Chromosomes get separated from each other during metaphase of cell division.
  14. Why can chromosomes be identified easily during metaphase ?

         ANS :Chromosomes can be identified easily during metaphase because they get separated from each other.
  15. What is centromere (primary constriction) ?

         ANS :In a chromosome, the dark region which connectes two individual chromatids is known as centromere (primary constriction).
  16. How are chromosomes classified ?

         ANS :Chromosomes are classified depending on the position of the centromere.
  17. Mention the types of chromosomes.

         ANS :Metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric and telocentric are the types of chromosomes.
  18. What is nucleolar organisation region ?

         ANS :A short filament connecting the satellite with the arm of an acrocentric chromosome is called nucleolar organisation region.
  19. What is the full form of DNA ?

         ANS :The full form of DNA is DeoxyriboNucleic acid.
  20. What is DNA ?

         ANS :DNA is a macromolecule in which a large number of nucleotide units is present.
  21. Why is DNA known as polynucleotide ?

         ANS :DNA is known as polynucleotide as it is a macromolecule consisting of a large number of nucleotide units.
  22. Mention the components of a DNA nucleotide.

         ANS :The components of a DNA nucleotide are : (1)Pentose sugar(deoxyribose sugar),(2)Phosphate group(H3PO4) and (3)Nitrogenous base.
  23. Mention the types of nitrogenous base in DNA.

         ANS :Purines and pyrimidines are the types of nitrogenous base in DNA.
  24. Mention the purines present in DNA.

         ANS :Adenine and Guanine are the purines present in DNA.
  25. Mention the pyrimidines present in DNA.

         ANS :Cytosine and Thymine are the pyrimidines present in DNA.
  26. What is complimentary pairing ?

         ANS :The linking of a purine type nitrogenous base with a pyrimidine type nitrogenous base by weak hydrogen bonds in a DNA molecule is called complimentary pairing.
  27. What is the length of each helix in a DNA molecule ?

         ANS :The length of each helix in a DNA molecule is 34 A°.
  28. How many nitrogenous base pairs are present in one helix of DNA ?

         ANS :10 nitrogenous base pairs are present in one helix of DNA.
  29. What is the distance between two adjacent nucleotides in a DNA molecule ?

         ANS :The distance between two adjacent nucleotides in a DNA molecule is 3.4 A°.
  30. What is the distance between two opposite chains of a DNA helix ?

         ANS :The distance between two opposite chains of a DNA helix is 20A°.
  31. What is the biological name of the fruit fly ?

         ANS :Drosophila melanogaster is the biological name of the fruit fly.
  32. What is mutation ?

         ANS :A sudden inheritable change in the nature of a gene is called mutation.
  33. Mutation is one of the reasons of variation. True or false ?

         ANS : TRUE
  34. What is the effect of high incubation temperature in determining sex in a turtle, chrysema picta ?

         ANS :The high incubation temperature in a turtle, chrysema picta, results in the development of a female.
  35. What is the effect of high incubation temperature in determining sex in a lizard, agama agama ?

         ANS :The high incubation temperature in a lizard, agama agama results in the development of a male.
  36. Give an example of a plant showing sex determination.

         ANS :Coccinia indica is a plant showing sex determination.
  37. What are the two basic factors of evolution ?

         ANS :Variation and heredity are the two basic factors of evolution.
  38. How is a new species evolved ?

         ANS :A new species is evolved during evolution process due to small changes in the heredity of one generation which gives rise to a new generation with different characters.
  39. Mention the types of evidence that support the biological evolution.

         ANS :Evidences of comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, vestigial organs, fossils, connecting links, physiology and taxonomy support biological evolution.
  40. Which theory of evolution did Darwin give ?

         ANS :Darwin gave the Theory of Natural Selection.
  41. Mention the limitation of Darwinism.

         ANS :Darwinism explains evolution with the help of variation but it does not explain how variation occurs.
  42. What are homologous organs ?

         ANS :The organs showing similarities in origin but performing different functions are called homologous organs.
  43. What are analogous organs ?

         ANS :The organs different origin but performing same functions are called analogous organs.
  44. Who proposed recapitulation theory ?

         ANS :Ernst Hackel proposed recapitulation theory.
  45. What does recapitulation theory state ?

         ANS :Recapitulation theory states that 'Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny'.
  46. What are vestigial organs ?

         ANS :Those organs found in an organism which are not functional but which might have been functional in ancestors are called vestigial organs.
  47. What do you study in Genetics ?

         ANS :We study important aspects of heredity and variation in Genetics.
  48. What is satellite(in a chromosome)?

         ANS :Satellite is around structure at the tip of the filament on the distal end of the short arm of an acrocentric chromosome.
  49. What is retrovirus ? Give an example.

         ANS :Retrovirus is a virus with RNA as hereditary material. The virus causing AIDS in humans is a retrovirus.
  50. What is organic(biological) evolution ?

         ANS :A natural process of structural sequential transformation of species which is slow but progressive is called organic(biological) evolution. OR The structural and well-organised process of gradual changes in species is called organic(biological) evolution.


  51.      ANS :


  52.      ANS :