Monday, May 07, 2007

TRANSPORTATION, CIRCULATION & EXCRETION IN ORGANISMS - I : MCQs & SHORT ANSWERS


*INDEX-TOPIC SEARCH

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS



SELECT THE CORRECT ALTERNATIVE:

  1. ______ is associated with the transport of water in plants.

    1. Xylem
    2. Phloem
    3. Chloroplast
    4. Aerenchyma

  2. Tracheae are found in ______ plants.

    1. pteridophytes
    2. gymnosperms
    3. angiosperms
    4. all three

  3. The inner wall of the tracheids and tracheae shows deposition of ______.

    1. starch
    2. glucose
    3. lignin
    4. protein

  4. Which of the following is not a property of blood plasma ?

    1. It is pale yellow
    2. It is nonliving
    3. It is acidic
    4. It contains hormones

  5. Which of the following is not a blood corpuscle ?

    1. Leucocyte
    2. Erythrocyte
    3. Thrombocyte
    4. Nymphocyte

  6. Which of the following is true for human erythrocytes ?

    1. They are biconvex.
    2. They have nucleus.
    3. They contain haemoglobin.
    4. They do not have nucleus but possess mitochondria.

  7. ______ is a respiratory pigment.

    1. Haemoglobin
    2. Chlorophyll
    3. Mesophyll
    4. Adrinalin

  8. The lifespan of erythrocytes is about ______ days.

    1. 100
    2. 120
    3. 140
    4. 180

  9. Which of the following is false ?

    1. Erythrocytes are light red in colour.
    2. Haemoglobin is a respiratory pigment.
    3. Lymphocytes produce immunoglobulins.
    4. Thrombocytes destroy pathogens.

  10. ______ is a necessary mineral for clotting of blood.

    1. Calcium
    2. Potassium
    3. Iron
    4. Zinc

  11. ______ converts liquid fibrinogen into solid fibres of fibrin.

    1. Thromboplastin
    2. Oxyhaemoglobin
    3. Immunoproteins
    4. Thrombin

  12. There are ______ types of antigens on the erythrocytes.

    1. two
    2. three
    3. four
    4. five

  13. The blood group of a person is O and Rh (-ve). He can donate blood to...

    1. any person
    2. a person with group O
    3. A person with Rh (-ve)
    4. none

  14. Which of the following is true ?

    1. Heart purifies blood.
    2. Heart separates excretory products from blood.
    3. Heart circulates blood.
    4. Blood flows from heart to lungs.

  15. The relaxed state of yeart is called ______.

    1. Diastolic state
    2. Systolic state
    3. Thermostatic state
    4. Primary state.

  16. The structure for excretion and osmoregulation in sponges is ______.

    1. osculum
    2. contractile vacuole
    3. nephridia
    4. flame cell

  17. Urine mainly consists of ______.

    1. Uranium
    2. Urea
    3. CO2
    4. sugar

  18. Birds excrete wastes in the form of ______.

    1. urea
    2. proteins
    3. uric acid
    4. water

  19. Which structure is responsible for transportation of water in pteridophytes ?

    1. Tracheids
    2. Tracheae
    3. Sieve cells
    4. Sieve tubes

  20. Which structure has lignified cell wall ?

    1. Sieve tube
    2. Tracheids
    3. Trachea
    4. Sieve cells

  21. Which blood cells contain haemoglobin ?

    1. RBC
    2. WBC
    3. Platelets
    4. Lymphocytes

  22. Which blood cells produce immunoglobin ?

    1. Platelets
    2. Erythrocytes
    3. Lymphocytes
    4. Leucocytes

  23. Which chemical is released when blood cells rupture ?

    1. Prothrombin
    2. Fibrin
    3. Thrombin
    4. Thromboplastin

  24. Where are antigens for blood group located ?

    1. WBC
    2. RBC
    3. Platelets
    4. Blood plasma

  25. How many chambers are present in human heart ?

    1. 1
    2. 2
    3. 3
    4. 4

  26. Where is bicuspid valve found in human heart ?

    1. Between two atria
    2. Between left auricle and left ventricle
    3. Between two ventricles
    4. Between right auricle and right ventricle.

  27. Through which parts of the heart does oxygenated blood flow ?

    1. Both atria
    2. Left auricle and left ventricle
    3. Both ventricles
    4. Right auricle and right ventricle

  28. Where does deoxygenated blood get oxygenated ?

    1. Atrium
    2. Heart
    3. Lungs
    4. Kidneys

  29. Which type of blood flows through all arteries ?

    1. Impure
    2. Pure
    3. Toxic
    4. With nitrogenous waste

  30. What is the shape of human heart ?

    1. Round
    2. Bean shaped
    3. Conical
    4. Triangular

  31. Carboxy-haemoglobin is formed when haemoglobin reacts with...

    1. CO
    2. CO2
    3. O2
    4. CH4




SHORT QUESTIONS



ANSWER IN SHORT:

  1. Define : Transportation.

         ANS : The movement of different types of substances absorbed or synthesized in one part of the body to another part of the body is called transportation.

  2. Mention two main components of xylem responsible for the transportation of water.

         ANS : Tracheids and tracheae (vessels) are two main components of xylem responsible for the transportation of water.

  3. What are tracheids ?

         ANS : Tracheids are long, thin and spindle shaped cells of xylem of a plant.

  4. Why are tracheids dead cells ?

         ANS : Tracheids are dead cells because their nuclei are disintegrated.

  5. What is ascent of sap ?

         ANS : The transportation of water and minerals from the roots to the leaves is known as the ascent of sap.

  6. How much of the water absorbed by the plants is used up in photosynthesis and other metabolic processes ?

         ANS : Only about 5% of water absorbed by the plants is used up in photosynthesis and other metabolic processes.

  7. Define : Transpiration.

         ANS : The process by which water absorbed by plants through roots is lost (thrown out) in the form of vapours is called transpiration.

  8. Where are plant hormones synthesized ?

         ANS : Plant hormones are synthesized at the shoot and root tips.

  9. What is the function of phloem ?

         ANS : Phloem translocates carbohydrates, essential substances, plant hormones, etc. from their place of origin to the site where needed.

  10. In which plant is a sieve cell the main component of phloem ?

         ANS : In pteridophytes and gymnosperms sieve cell is the main component of phloem.

  11. In which plants are the sieve tube and companion cell the main components of phloem ?

         ANS : In angiospermic plants the sieve tube and companion cell are the main components of phloem.

  12. What regulates metabolic activities carried out in the sieve tube cells ?

         ANS : The nucleus of the companion cell regulates metabolic activities carried out in the sieve tube cells.

  13. Define : Sieve pores.

         ANS : The perforations in the transverse walls (sieve plates) present between sieve tube cells are called sieve pores.

  14. Define : Translocation.

         ANS : The transport of food from leaves to other parts of plants is called translocation.

  15. What is the need for translocation of food ?

         ANS : Translocation of food is necessary to fulfil the daily requirement of energy, to replace the worn out cells and for the growth of the plant.

  16. Define : Circulatory system.

         ANS : The system associated with the transport of various substances like nutrients, hormones, enzymes, respiratory gases, excretory products, etc. is called circulatory system.

  17. Mention two main components of blood.

         ANS : Blood plasma and blood corpuscles are the two main components of blood.

  18. Mention three main types of blood corpuscles.

         ANS : Erythrocytes (RBC), leucocytes (WBC) and thrombocytes (platelets) are three types of blood corpuscles.

  19. Why is haemoglobin called respiratory pigment ?

         ANS : Haemoglobin is called respiratory pigment because it transports respiratory gases (O2 and CO2) between lungs and organs.

  20. Where are erythrocytes formed ?

         ANS : Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow.

  21. Which type of WBC produce immunoglobulins ?

         ANS : Lymphocytes produce immunoglobulins.

  22. What is serum ?

         ANS : Serum is a viscous pale yellow liquid that oozes out from the periphery of a blood clot.

  23. Define : Blood transfusion.

         ANS : The transfer of blood from a healthy donor to a needy patient is called blood transfusion.

  24. Who discovered the presence of special antigens on the surface of erythrocytes ?

         ANS : Carl Landsteiner discovered the presence of special antigens on the surface of erythrocytes.

  25. Mention different blood groups in human beings.

         ANS : The blood groups present in human being are : A, B, AB and O.

  26. What happens during the diastolic state of heart ?

         ANS : During diastolic state of heart, deoxygenated blood from organs enters right atrium through the superior and inferior vena cava and oxygenated blood from lungs enters left atrium through pulmonary vein.

  27. Why is circulation of blood through heart called 'double circulation' ?

         ANS : The circulation of blood through heart is called 'double circulation' because deoxygenated blood from body organs passes twice through heart before it reaches the organs in oxygenated form.

  28. Define : Artery.

         ANS : The blood vessel which carries blood from heart to different organs of the body is called artery.

  29. Define : Vein.

         ANS : The blood vessel which carries blood from different organs to the heart is called vein.

  30. What is lymph ?

         ANS : The transparent fluid which oozes out in the surrounding intercellular space and the tissue cells from the blood flowing in the capillaries is called lymph.

  31. Which cells does lymph contain ?

         ANS : Lymph contains lymphocytes.

  32. What constitutes lymphatic system ?

         ANS : Lymphatic system consists of lymphatic vessels, lymphatic capillaries, lymph nodes and lymph glands.

  33. Define : Excretion.

         ANS : The biological process involved in the removal of liquid excretory substances from the body is called excretion.

  34. Define : Osmoregulation.

         ANS : The process of maintaining the required amount of water and proper ionic balance in the body is called osmoregulation.

  35. What is the structure for excretion and osmoregulation in amoeba known as ?

         ANS : The structure for excretion and osmoregulation in amoeba is known as contractile vacuole.

  36. What is the structure for excretion in earthworm known as ?

         ANS : The structure for excretion in earthworm is known as nephridia.

  37. What is the structure for excretion in platyhelminthes known as ?

         ANS : The structure for excretion in platyhelminthes is known as flame cells.

  38. What does hydra have for excretion and osmoregulation ?

         ANS : Hydra has oral opening for excretion and osmoregulation.

  39. Mention the types of nephridia in earthworm.

         ANS : The types of nephridia in earthworm are : (i) septal (ii) pharyngeal and (iii) integumentary.

  40. Which two types of excretion is shown by the earthworm ?

         ANS : Enteronephric excretion and exonephric excretion are the two types of excretion shown by the earthworm.

  41. What is enteronephric excretion ?

         ANS : In enteronephric excretion the excretory products are poured into the alimentary canal through nephridia.

  42. What is exonephric excretion ?

         ANS : In exonephric excretion the excretory products are thrown out of the body through the skin.

  43. Where are human kidneys located ?

         ANS : Human kidneys are located in the abdomen on the dorsal side.

  44. What is ultrafiltration ?

         ANS : The filtration of blood carrying waste material under pressure in glomerulus is known as ultrafiltration.

  45. What do desert animals do for osmoregulation ?

         ANS : Since desert animals cannot afford to lose water, they convert the concentrated waste into crystals of uric acid.

  46. Which substance provides mechanical support to the walls of xylem ?

         ANS : Lignin provides mechanical support to the walls of xylem.

  47. What is transported through sieve plate ?

         ANS : Food is transported through sieve plate.

  48. Mention the colour of blood and lymph.

         ANS : The colour of blood and lymph is red and pale yellow respectively.

  49. What is the shape of human erythrocytes ?

         ANS : Human erythrocytes are round, biconcave in shape.

  50. Which mineral is present on haemoglobin ?

         ANS : Iron is present in haemoglobin.

  51. Where are blood cells produced in our body ?

         ANS : Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow of long bones.

  52. Mention two functions of WBC.

         ANS : The two functions of WBC are : (i) They destroy pathogenic microorganisms. (ii) They destroy harmful substances.

  53. Give examples of enucleated blood cells.

         ANS : RBC (erythrocytes) and platelets are enucleated blood cells.

  54. State the function and location of stem cells.

         ANS : Stem cells are located in the bone marrow of long bones and they produce all types of blood corpuscles.

  55. Where is thromboplastin produced ?

         ANS : Thromboplastin is produced at the point of injury where blood vessels rupture.

  56. Which mineral is needed to convert prothrombin into thrombin ?

         ANS : Mineral calcium is needed to convert prothrombin into thrombin.

  57. What converts fibrinogen to fibrin ?

         ANS : Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin.

  58. Where are blood antigens located ?

         ANS : Blood antigens are located on the surface of erythrocytes.

  59. Why does right atrium appear dark in colour ?

         ANS : Right atrium appears dark in colour because it has deoxygenated blood in it which is dark in colour.

  60. Why does left venticle appear red in colour ?

         ANS : Left ventricle appears red in colour because it has oxygenated blood in it which is red in colour.

  61. What type of valves are found in veins ?

         ANS : The valves in veins are of the type which allows blood to flow towards heart and stops it from flowing in opposite direction.

  62. Where is tricuspid valve present in human heart ?

         ANS : Tricuspid valve is present between right atrium and right ventricle of heart.

  63. To which part of the body does pulmonary artery supply blood ?

         ANS : Pulmonary artery supplies blood to lungs (from heart).

  64. What is the function of pulmonary vein ?

         ANS : Pulmonary vein collects blood from lungs and supplies it to the left atrium.

  65. Define : Conduction.

         ANS : The upward movement of water (absorbed by roots) through tracheids is called conduction.

  66. Define : Double circulation.

         ANS : The circulation of blood through heart is called double circulation because deoxygenated blood from body organs passes twice through heart before it reaches the organs in oxygenated form.

  67. What are blood capillaries ?

         ANS : Fine, thin-walled and narrow tubular branches of arterioles which reunite to form venules are called blood capillaries.

  68. Define : Companion cell.

         ANS : The cells arranged laterally and longitudinally to sieve tube cells in the phloem of angiospermic plants are called companion cells.

  69. Which organelle is absent in human RBC ?

         ANS : Nucleus and mitochondria are absent in RBC.

  70. State the location and function of stem cells.

         ANS :Stem cells are located in bone marrow of long bones and their function is of formation of all types of blood cells.

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